TERM DEFINITION
A | B | C | D | E | | F | G | | H | I | K | L | M | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z

40/10 Theory - When targeting a specific point during the stress of a confrontation, 40% of the time the strike will be high, 40% of the time it will be low, 10% of the time the officer will miss completely and 10% of the time the targeted point will be hit.

4140 - A specially formulated high strength alloy seamless tubing that is produced exclusively for ASP Batons. The material is 25% stronger than any other baton material currently available.
90% Rule - ASP techniques are designed to work 90% of the time in 90% of the situations that officers face. However, nothing works 100% of the time. Officers should not give up a good technique because of an exceptional case in which a procedure does not work. In the same manner, officers must always be in a position to disengage or escalate if a procedure is not effective.

A

Airweight - A seamless tubing variation that is produced specifically for ASP Batons. Airweight models weigh approximately
one half of their steel counterparts yet are extremely strong and tough.

After Care - Once an individual has been under control through the use of force, the officer is responsible for securing medical treatment of injuries sustained by the subject.

Aluminum - Lightweight ASP restraints with black bows.

Anodizing - An aluminum coating that provides corrosion protection and produces a brightly colored finish.

B

Backloading - The ability of a restraint to draw the last several teeth of the bow back through the frame to a set position prior to handcuffing. Often required in restraints with extremely stiff lock mechanisms.

Back Up - When Hinge Handcuffs are stacked behind the back, the subject’s palms should face upward.

Black Chrome Plating - A darkening process that deposits a layer of extremely hard Black Chrome on an undercoat of nickel. Originally offered only on the finest custom firearms. The complement to ASP Silver Chrome, this is the most technically sophisticated black finish available from any source.
Blade the Body - Minimizing exposure of the body by turning the torso so only the side faces the subject while the officer is in a strong Pyramid Stance.
Body Mechanics - The physical components of human movement which contribute to the creation of center and decentralization of a subject.
Bow - The swing-through retention mechanism that employs ratchet teeth to lock the restraint in place on the subject’s wrist.

Bow Guides - A unique ASP design that employs a geometrically precise pierced stainless steel arc to maintain alignment of the bow within the frame.

Bow Track - A retention mechanism on each side of the bow which retains integrity of the restraint during extreme stress.

BreakAway - A window breaking tool that is interposed between the end cap and handle of an ASP Baton. The three ground ceramic pins are set in a geometric dome and can break the tempered side and rear window glass or the windshield of a motor vehicle.

Breakaway - The key activated bridge release opposite the palm swell on Rigid Handcuffs.

Bridge - The heat treated stainless steel locking mechanism of the Rigid Handcuff.

Bridging - The ability of an officer to move from one technique to another in a fluid manner. Used in conjunction with the Reaction Hand Defense to allow multiple strikes with the ASP Baton without danger of the officer being overwhelmed. Failures of the side handle baton are often the result of the weapon’s inability to bridge.

C

CBI - Competency Based Instruction
Cease to Exist - A technique for presenting a weapon where the item in an officer’s hand is dropped while acquiring a firm grip on the weapon.

Center - The building of a Pyramid. Center is achieved through use of a wide, deep, low stance with the head over center.
Center Mass - A forgiving concept of target acquisition. In the context of the ASP Baton, the center mass of the arm is the elbow, the center mass of the leg is the knee and the center mass of the torso is the belt buckle.

Chain Cuff - Tactical Handcuffs which are joined by a stainless steel chain that is welded to a 360° swivel and surrounded by a reinforcing collar. Chain Handcuffs are the easiest of all restraints to apply in a tactical setting.
Check - One of the two primary means for dealing with a subject’s forward momentum. The Reaction Hand and Weapon Hand contact the subject’s chest to stop forward

movement.

Cheek Plates - The two polymer covered stainless steel arms that retain the bow.

Chemically Bonded - The use of a chemical compound that is heat sensitive. Applied to threads of a product such as the tip on the Tactical Baton, the bond can only be broken when extreme heat such as that from a torch or hot plate is applied to the surface.

Chrome Plating - An extremely precise finishing operation which deposits a thin layer of clear chrome over a copper and nickel base to produce a silver finish. The specifications of ASP require a chrome finish that will not chip or flake off even when the shafts of the baton are subjected to severe deformation.

Circle - A dynamic drill in which an officer employs techniques against an Instructor dressed in Red Man as other students form a protective observation circle.

Clearance Strikes - Baton strikes coming from the Reaction Side of the body.

Clip - An attachment system that allows SideBreak Scabbards to be rapidly attached to police or military belts.

Closed Mode - Striking with the closed fist or cap of the baton. During Closed Mode strikes, the thumb is placed over the side of the Tip to prevent the baton from “popping” open due to the force of the strike.

Combat Close - Use of a full grip to rapidly close a Friction Loc Baton in one motion.

Combat Cuffing - Restraint of a violent, resistant, non-responsive or tactical subject that requires the use of force to control, stabilize and restrain.

Combat Open - A continuous opening procedure as the baton is brought to the shoulder from a downward opening position.

Combat Stance - A wider and lower stance that is taken as the baton is brought to the shoulder in an Open Mode.

Competency Based Instruction - Criteria reference testing in which a standard is established and students are judged to that standard.


Compliant Cuffing - Restraint of a non-violent subject that is responsive to verbal commands.
Confrontational Continuum - A model for evaluating the appropriate response of an officer to an escalating series of actions on the part of a subject.

Conical Geometry - An ever-changing arc that is derived from the conical diameter of the ASP Tactical Handcuff. This wedge lock design allows a wider range of locking positions to secure large subjects as well as juveniles and women with use of the same restraint.

Counter Strikes - Movement out of the line of attack as a strike is thrown by the officer. Contrasted with staying in the line of attack and attempting to stop the technique.

Cuff Cover - A metalic enclosure for either Chain or Hinge ASP Handcuffs that blocks access to keyways and positions a subject’s hands at a safe and ergonomically correct position for transport. Available either independently or as part of a keyless transport kit which includes a waist chain.

D

Deadlock Taper - A precision engineering taper used on Friction Loc Batons that allows two cylindrical objects to lock into a rigid position and not release when subjected to a linear force on a soft surface. The lock will collapse when tapped on a hard object such as a concrete floor.

Decentralization - Removing the pyramid by taking away center, making the base narrow, shallow or high and taking the head off center by rolling the ball.
Dialogue - The control of a subject through two-way communication, directing a subject to take action through one-waycommunication, calming the individual down by debriefing and documenting the actions involved in the confrontation.
Direct to the Ground - Taking an individual to the ground to stabilize the subject and create a position of advantage for the officer.
Disengage or Escalate - The option of an officer to leave the confrontation or escalate to a higher level of force. All techniques should provide an officer with an ability to disengage or escalate.


Double Lock - The mechanism that prevents the handcuff from either tightening or being removed.

Double Lock Bar - A highly visible polymer structure that may be engaged to prevent movement of the lock bar.

Down in Front - When Rigid Handcuffs are stacked in front of the body, the subject’s palms should face downward.


DuraTec - A durable molded grip which is permanently bonded to the baton handle.

Duty Scabbard - A “soft” carrier that is designed for investigative and security personnel. The scabbard snaps onto the belt and securely retains a retracted or expanded ASP Baton. The case can also hold a Triad light in a lens up or lens down configuration.

Dynamic/Fluid/Static Training - Traditional defensive tactics instruction has been static without movement or options on the part of the subject. Fluid training combined movement in a relatively prearranged manner. Dynamic training provides the participant with an opponent who is thinking and moving with a full range of motion and a series of offensive options.

E

Electroless Nickel - This highly corrosion resistant coating has a stainless steel like appearance. The process coats both the interior and exterior of baton tubes.

European Lock Set - The three pawl Lock Set (color code green).

Extended Tip - The replaceable end section for the LeverLoc Baton that allows manual extension of the shafts.

Extended Tip Bump - Pushing the protruding tip of the LeverLoc upward with the fingers before sliding up the SideBreak, grasping the handle and presenting the baton.
Extension Lock Design - Both cuffs of the Rigid Restraint must be extended for the automatic lock to engage. Designed to prevent accidental activation.

F


Federal Scabbard - A closed side scabbard that increases retention of the ASP Baton.

Fidelity of Simulation - How close the simulation is to an actual confrontation.

Fine Motor Skills - Physical movement requiring complex skills that are difficult to perform. (playing the piano)

Finger Track - The recess on the lower edge of Rigid Handcuffs that keeps an officer’s fingers clear of the bow guides.
Five Principles of Officer Survival - The basic principles for officer safety as shown on the Vigilance Key Tag.

· Watch the palms
· Seek cover
· Maintain distance
· Keep the weapon back
· Control the Strong Hand


Flare - The use of a 30 ton press to force a mandrel into the tubing to open it up to a precise position which will allow the shafts of the Tactical Baton to lock in place.

Flex Frame Technology - The use of an overmolded stainless steel frame to reduce injury potential from excessive lateral stress due to improper handcuff application.

Floor Dynamics - Control of the training environment to prevent bags, jackets, batons and other equipment from presenting a safety hazard.


Fluid Shock - The transmission of energy from the baton through the body by providing time on target.

Foamed Vinyl - A patented process whereby extremely durable vinyl compounds are formed to produce a grip which has a soft feel while retaining a high abrasion and tear resistance.
Forgiving Techniques - Procedures that remain effective even if not done exactly right or directed to the precise target.
Friction Loc - An expandable baton with three mating shafts. Held in an extended position by the interference fit at two tapered joints. The baton is impact closed by striking the tip straight down on a hard surface.

Fusion LED - A Tactical Triad attached to an ASP Baton.

Fusion OC - A Tactical Defender attached to an ASP Baton.

G


Grip Cap - An increased diametric angular cap that enhances retention of the ASP Baton during confrontations.

Gross Motor Skills - Relatively easy movements involving large muscles of the body which can be accomplished by unskilled personnel under stress.

H

Hard Baton - ASP Expandable Baton

Hardcoat - A black aluminum finish that is extremely hard and corrosion resistant.

Heat Treating - A hardening process involving the heating of an alloyed material to a high temperature and then rapidly quenching
to produce a tube that will not bend or open up.

Hand Guard - The recess on the upper edge of Rigid Handcuffs that keeps the officer’s hand clear of the bow as it swings around during application of the cuffs.

High Contact Bow - A flat face swing-through locking mechanism that provides better positioning on the subject’s wrists. The flat surface engages the round portion of the subject’s wrist allowing a better purchase and more positive application of the restraint by preventing the bow from slipping to one side of the wrist or the other.

High Security Lock Set - The two pawl Lock Set with a divider plate and enhanced pick resistance (color code blue).

Hinge Cuff - Tactical Handcuffs which are joined by heat treated stainless steel links with four pivot points. Hinge Handcuffs provide improved control of the subject.

Human Rights Tip (HRT) - A replaceable overmolded end section for the LeverLoc Baton that allows manual extension of the shafts.

I

Impact v Comealong - ASP Baton Training emphasizes use of the weapon for impact. Comealongs are accomplished with the hands.

Injury Free Training - The emphasis of all ASP instruction is the creation of an environment in which officers can learn dynamic skills in an environment that is as safe as possible recognizing that defensive tactics is by definition a contact activity.
Interview Stance - A solid pyramid position with a wide base, deep base, low center and head over center with the baton in a Closed Mode position.

K

Keyway - A beveled key access port that is blocked by an integral security post.

L

Leverage Cap - A reduced diameter cap for the ASP Baton that shifts the pivot point of the weapon increasing striking potential of the baton.

LeverLoc - The use of internal steel lugs to lock baton shafts in an extended position. Shafts are released by means of an eccentric cam.

Line - A basic training drill that begins with officers facing each other or the Instructor as skills are repeated by the numbers.
Lock Bar (Pawl) - A pivoting retention mechanism with one-direction steel teeth that allow the mating surfaces on the bow to swing through the frame while preventing movement in the opposite direction.

Lock Set - A unitized insert that contains the lock bar (pawl) and double lock indicator.

Loosen & Lock - The design of ASP restraints allows a cuff that tests too tight to be loosened and double locked without removing the key from the Lock Set.

Lowered Strike Force - The orientation disk on Rigid Handcuffs for left-handed officers.

M

Mainspring - The pressure mechanism that locks the bridge of Rigid Handcuffs in place.

Mill Run Tubing - Specially alloyed and individually formulated tubing available only on special order with extensive lead time for production. Mill run tubing is available only in extremely large quantities to specific customers.

O

O-Ring - A 70 Durometer Buna Nitrile Elastomer seal that retains the end cap of ASP Batons with a .010 compression fit.
Officer/Subject Factors - The relational aspects of a confrontation (between the parties) which have an effect upon the amount of force that can be reasonably employed.
· Age · Skill Level
· Gender · Multiple Officers
· Size · Multiple Subjects
· Fitness

Open Mode - The baton is locked in an extended position as it rests on the shoulder and held in a tight grip.

Open to the Sky or Ground - Expanding the baton straight up or straight down rather than at an angle that could accidentally strike another officer.

One Pawl - The Tactical locking system for handcuffs (color code yellow).

Orientation Disk - The feature on a Rigid Handcuff near the bow guides which contacts the thumb to confirm proper orientation of the cuff. A raised Strike Force for right-handed and a lowered Strike Force for left-handed officers.

Overload - A series of ASP strikes to the same area of the subject’s body.

P


Palm Swell - The center section of the Rigid Handcuffs that is raised to fill the palm of the hand and provide increased control of the cuff.


Paddle - An attachment for both SideBreak and Federal Scabbards that may be rapidly attached to the waistband and easily
removed. Paddle assembly distributes the weight of batons and scabbards.

Pawl (Lock Bar) - A pivoting retention mechanism with one-direction steel teeth that allow the mating surfaces on the bow to swing through the frame while preventing movement in the opposite direction.

Plowing the Baton - Attempting to close the baton while striking it at an angle rather than straight down.

Pivot Bushing - A precision machined structure that provides for smooth rotation of the bow through the frame.

Polymer Technology - The use of advanced thermoplastics to achieve design criteria not possible with traditional engineering materials.

Pop · Place · Pull - The process of applying Tri-Fold Restraints consisting of opening the folded restraint, placing it on the wrists of the subject and pulling the removable Tri-Fold Ring.

Post - Officers are placed in staggered positions on the training floor. They move from position to position as they complete one circuit of techniques.

Powder Paint - An extremely durable coating that deposits a layer of fine powder particles on a product prior to a baking process which fuses the paint to the surface.

Presentation - Drawing the baton and placing it in an Open Mode in Combat Stance.

Presentation - The process of removing handcuffs from their carrier and positioning them in the hand prior to application.

Primary v Secondary Techniques - ASP tactics that are directed at the Weapon or Delivery System of the attacker rather than at targets that are intended to gain control by dealing with the subject’s Intent.

Progressive Training - Instruction that moves through a series of techniques that increase the level of fidelity to actual confrontations:
· By the Numbers
· Slow for Form
· Full Speed and Power
· Simulation

Propensity for Control v - A means of evaluating techniques based upon the likely outcome of their application.

Pry the Palm - Rigid Handcuffs may be applied from the inside or outside to the subject’s right or left hand. Whatever the position of application, the cuffs should extend from the palm side of the subject’s hand. Pressure is applied by blocking the top of the hand and prying up.

Purchase - The contact surface of the handcuff as it rests on the wrist prior to application.
Pyramid Concept - Use of a wide, deep, low base with the head over center to build a stable stance.

R


Raised Strike Force - The orientation disk on Rigid Handcuffs for right-handed officers.

Rapid Response Strike - A variation of baton opening “to the ground” in which the baton is directed at a subject as it is opened.

Ratchet Teeth - Single direction retention surfaces on the face of the bow which mate with the locking bar (pawl) and maintain the engagement of the bow within the frame.

Reaction Side - The side of the officer’s body that is bladed closest to the subject. Handcuffs are commonly worn on the Reaction Side.

Reaction Hand - The support or non-firearm hand. Not referred to as the “Weak Hand” as officers should not be trained that they are weak.


Reaction Hand Defense - Use of the Reaction Hand to create distance and measure the distance to target so that an individual being struck is not too close or too far away. Nonuse of the Reaction Hand Defense is a primary characteristic of the “old school” of defensive tactics.
Reaction Side - The bladed side of the officer’s body closest to the subject. Handcuffs are commonly worn on the Reaction Side. Red Man - The protective equipment worn by the Instructor during circle training.

Reaction Strike - A clearance strike to create distance.

Redirect - One of the two primary means of gaining Safe Separation by stepping out of the line of attack and directing energy at the subject’s torso from the side.

Red Man - The protective equipment worn by the Instructor during circle training.

Reinforcing Ribs - Computer calculated structural geometries that dramatically increase the strength of the hardened stainless steel frame.

Relative Positioning - The location of the officer in relation to the subject. Starting in the front of the subject and moving around the subject clockwise, Position 2.5 (right rear) is the most desirable position for control of a subject. It places the officer in a position of advantage to control the subject’s right hand.

Resetting the Baton - Placing the Tactical Baton on the shoulder after a series of strikes.


Restraints - A generic term that encompasses Tri-Fold Disposable, Chain, Hinge and Rigid Handcuffs.

Retaining Clip - A tapered, heat treated spring steel retaining mechanism that holds Friction Loc Batons in a retracted position.

Rigid Cuffs - Tactical Handcuffs which open and lock into a fixed position. Rigid cuffs allow the officer to control and restrain a subject.

Rock & Lock - The ASP system for applying Tactical Restraints.

Roller Loc - The proprietary retention mechanism used in ASP Tri-Fold Restraints.
Roll the Ball - A technique for decentralizing a subject by moving the head off of center.



Rotational Release - The method by which a student removes either disposableor hard training restraints.


S

Safe Separation - A procedure for creating distance through use of a Check or Redirection. The purpose of the Reaction Hand Defense.

Security Post - An integral blocking structure that prevents common objects from entering the handcuff keyway.
Seven Components of Power - Seven elements that combine to create techniques that are effective in a law enforcement environment:

· Balance
· Endurance
· Flexibility
· Focus
· Speed
· Strength
· Simplicity


Shock the Baton - Jabbing the Friction Loc Baton into a solid surface without follow-through.

SideBreak Scabbard - A split side scabbard that allows an expanded ASP Baton to be rapidly presented.

Single Lock - The mechanism which prevents the bow from being removed while allowing it to be ratcheted tighter.

Slide - A SideBreak and Federal Scabbard attachment system which incorporates a sliding belt lock.

Slip Pawl - A training Lock Set that allows rapid application and keyless release (color code red).
Soft Baton - A foam padded ASP Training Baton.

Special Circumstances - Elements that impact the amount of force that can reasonably be employed by a law enforcement officer in the control of a subject.
· Close proximity to a firearm/weapon
· Special knowledge
· Injury or exhaustion
· Ground position
· Disability
· Imminent Danger

Stabilization - Control of an individual that creates a position of advantage for the officer prior to the application of restraints. The most effective stabilization is on the ground in a prone position.


Stabilization - The positioning of a subject’s hands in a manner that allows rapid application of restraints.

Stacking - The positioning of one hand above another (palm up in back, palm down in front) to provide more secure low profile control of a subject.
Stacking - Placing two subjects in a line so that the officer fights only one at a time during an attack by multiple assailants. Subject - The name given to the individual who the officer attempts to control. (Sir)


Straight Strike - A supported strike with the Middle Shaft of the baton in an Open Mode or the fist in a Closed Mode that is directed toward the center mass of the body.

Subject Control - The positioning of a resisting individual so they are no longer a threat to the officer or the public.

Sustain Momentum - Maintenance of decentralization once it has been achieved by narrowing the base, shortening the base, raising the center or taking the head off center.

Swage - The use of a 30 ton press to force the tubing of the ASP Tactical Baton into a machined block creating the taper necessary to lock the baton in an open position.

Swivel - A precisely machined, smooth rotating stainless steel connecting mechanism for the handcuff chains.

Swivel Collar - A precision machined heavy walled reinforcing structure for the chain swivel.


T


Tactical Defender - An OC dispersion system that attaches to the back of an ASP Baton.

Tactical Handcuff - An ASP design that incorporates an overmolded stainless steel frame, replaceable Lock Set, dual-sided keyway, radiused edges, high visibility double lock indicator, onedirection unlock, lightweight, high contact bow, wide range of locking positions and ultra smooth action.

Tactical Lock Set - The standard ASP single pawl Lock Set (color code yellow).

Tactical Triad - An extremely bright LED lighting system that attaches to the back of an ASP Baton.

Thermoplastic - An extremely tough molded polymer.
Three Minute Drill - Simulation training that is conducted one-on-one and ends with the subject stabilized on the ground and restrained. Training and Experience - The basis for decisions made by law enforcement personnel.


Three Pawl - The most commonly used locking system for handcuffs in Europe (color code green).

Training Cuffs - Chain, Hinge, Rigid or Tri-Fold Restraints that are color coded red and can be released by rotating the wrists.

Tip - A heavily radiused, replaceable steel extension that is thread attached to the end tube of ASP Batons.

Training and Experience - The basis for decisions made by law enforcement personnel.

Training Lock Set - The slip pawl Lock Set which allows rotational release of restraints by a student (color code red).
Training Drills - Specially designed repetitive exercises which develop muscle memory and aid in the mastery of psychomotor skills to a high level of competency.

Training the “2” - A learning system designed so that techniques can be employed by law enforcement personnel regardless of age, gender, size, fitness or skill level.

Tri-Fold Disposable Restraints - Disposable restraints which are designed for one time use. Rapidly applied, Tri-Fold restraints allow identification during mass arrests.

Two Pawl - The High Security locking system for handcuffs that features a divider plate and extreme pick resistance (color code blue).

U


Ulna - The large bone on the outside of the wrist. Restraints should be applied between this bone and the flare of the hand.

Universal Cue - Directions that will be perceived by all students in the same manner. (Up and Down v Left and Right)

V

Visual Cue - An indicator of a specific situation or circumstance. (Training Bags held by left-handed students show the letters ASP upside down)

W

Weapon Hand - The strong, predominant, firearm hand.

Wavemaster - A replaceable patterned grip which provides a secure hold and increased control.

Weapon Disarming v - A tactical decision to disarm a subject who has a weapon as contrasted with a defensive posture taken as the subject attacks the officer.

Weapon Side - The dominant side of the officer’s body. The side where the firearm is most often worn. Tactical Batons are commonly worn on the Weapon Side behind the firearm.


Weapon Strike - A strike with the ASP Baton from the dominant side of the officer’s body.

Wedge Lock Design - An ever-changing arc that is derived from the conical diameter of the ASP Tactical Handcuff. This conical geometry allows a wider range of locking positions to secure large subjects as well as juveniles and women with use of the same restraint.

Wheel - Officers are placed in concentric circles with the inner circle positioned toward the outer circle and the outer circle facing inward. Students in the outer circle rotate after each technique.


Y

Your 100% - The effort required during ASP Training. While all officers do not have the same level of physical skill or fitness, they should all participate to their maximum ability.

Z

Zinc Dichromate - A gold finishing process which protects metal surfaces
from rust and provides an ideal undercoat for painting
operations.